The three basic styles of Hanfu

The three basic styles of Hanfu

Hanfu is a traditional Chinese costume that has been inherited for more than 4,000 years. During its long historical development, its fabrics, patterns, styles, cutting methods, production techniques, etc. have been continuously updated, and the styles have become more and more abundant and exquisite. , the connotation is getting richer and richer. Historically, Hanfu is not only becoming more and more complete in terms of etiquette, but Hanfu in different historical periods also has very distinct characteristics of the times, from the Yellow Emperor's "hanging down clothes to rule the world", to the gradual formation of the Shang and Zhou Dynasty crown clothing system, and then to During the Qin and Han Dynasties, the form of Hanfu became increasingly perfect, and Hanfu became more and more a distinctive symbol of the Chinese nation. After exchanges and integration with different regions and ethnic groups during the Wei, Jin, Sui, Tang, Song and Ming dynasties, the categories, lengths, fatness, styles, colors, patterns and visual effects of Hanfu have been continuously updated, and the collars, cuffs and belt styles have been constantly updated. There are thousands of variations, and eventually there are hundreds of styles of Hanfu.

However, it remains true to its roots. No matter how the appearance of Hanfu changes, the core ideas and national spirit it carries have not changed over thousands of years, and even its basic format has not changed fundamentally. Today, Shi Pujun will talk to you about the three most basic styles of Hanfu from the perspective of clothing styles - upper and lower separate tailoring, upper and lower joint tailoring, and upper and lower combined tailoring. Their corresponding representative forms of Hanfu are: : Clothing system, deep clothing system, robe system. There is a difference between the system and the form here. The system mainly refers to the cutting and production techniques of clothing, while the form mainly refers to the style of the clothing after it is made. The form of Hanfu in ancient China includes not only the style of clothing, but also the system of dressing, which is an important manifestation of the etiquette regulations of Chinese civilization.

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01 Clothing system (top and bottom cuts)

The garment system, also known as the upper garment and the lower garment, is made by cutting and making the upper garment and the lower garment separately. The upper garment is a garment and the lower garment is a garment. This is the earliest clothing form in China and the first style of the Hanfu system. The word "clothing" comes from this. The upper garment has a crossed collar and right hem, and the lower garment surrounds and wraps the lower body, both tied with a belt. This is also the most basic feature of Hanfu.

According to legend, the system of upper and lower garments began with the Yellow Emperor. Ancient documents and unearthed human-shaped pottery prove that as late as the Shang Dynasty, the system of upper garments and lower garments had already been formed. In the pre-Qin period, the emperor's officials wore mianfu and xuanduan to participate in solemn ceremonies such as sacrifices. They were both typicalShape of top and bottom. From the Qin and Han Dynasties to the end of the Ming Dynasty, no matter how the clothing changed, the top and bottom shirt were always the highest form of men's dress in the past dynasties. It can be said that this design of the Yellow Emperor has profoundly affected the historical trend of the development of Chinese national clothing, and perfectly integrates the traditional Chinese view of the universe, nature and humanity, and has profound semiotic implications.

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The characteristic of the top and lower skirt system is that the top and bottom are worn separately, which is convenient for life and work, so it is highly adaptable. The popular jackets and skirts in later generations, as well as the tops and bottoms worn by ordinary people, can essentially be classified as tops and skirts.

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The top and lower skirt system is the earliest source of Hanfu, and it is also the most basic and orthodox form of Hanfu. The deep clothing system and the robe-shirt system all evolved and developed on the basis of the upper skirt and lower skirt system, and are deformations of the upper skirt and lower skirt system.

02 Deep clothing system (jointly attached to upper and lower parts)

The deep garment system is to first cut the top and bottom separately, and then sew the two together, that is, the upper and lower parts are connected to make them "deep" and form a whole. The deep clothing is divided into upper and lower parts to follow the ancient system of upper and lower garments, and the upper and lower garments are sewn into one piece for convenience. At the same time, the entire body can be tightly wrapped and hidden, which not only reflects the Chinese concept of "heaven, earth, and man." The philosophical thought of "One" also reflects the cultural character of the Han nation that is reserved, reserved and tolerant of all things.

The deep clothing system is the most representative clothing form in ancient my country, and it is also one of the oldest forms of Hanfu. In the pre-Qin period,Shenyi has been widely popular in society. From the emperor and officials to the common people, they can be worn by men, women, old and young, regardless of their occupations. During the Han Dynasty, the popularity and popularization of deep clothes with curved and straight trains made deep clothes the most iconic form of Han clothing. Zhu Xi, a famous scholar in the Song Dynasty, made Zhu Xi's Shenyi through textual research and research on the Shenyi Chapter of "Book of Rites", formulated strict specifications and shape requirements for Shenyi, and gave Shenyi a deeper ritual cultural connotation. It has a great influence in history.

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The deep clothing system is one of the most worthy of discussion and study in the Hanfu system. It is elegant, solemn, and well-tailored. It can be said to be the core essence of the Hanfu system.

03 Robe shirt system (cut from top to bottom)

The robe-shirt system is the robe system, and its cutting method is obviously different from the upper and lower garment systems and the deep garment system. The upper and lower garments are no longer cut separately, but are cut straight across the body, with no seams at the top and bottom, and are naturally integrated. There are those where the front body and back body are all cut together, and there are also those where one side of the front body or the back body is cut through. The robe-style Hanfu is straight-cut, which not only saves fabric, but also facilitates sewing and has a smooth and natural shape. T-shirts of the Tang and Song dynasties often had a seam at the knee, called a "horizontal gusset." It is generally believed that this horizontal gusset was deliberately added out of adhering to and respecting the ancestral system of the upper garment and the lower garment.

According to research, Tongcai Hanfu appeared at least in the early years of the Han Dynasty. In the early days, it mainly existed as underwear. After the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties, it began to be worn as formal wear. From the Sui and Tang Dynasties to the late Ming Dynasty, tailor-made Hanfu became very popular, with many styles and could be worn by both men and women. The more famous round-neck robes, 襕shirts, straight jackets, Taoist robes, jackets, Bijia, Hechang, Feiyu suits, etc. all belong to this type of style in history.

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To sum up, although the styles of Hanfu are complicated, from the basic shape, there are three main types: the garment system, the deep garment system, and the robe-shirt system. The garment system is the source of Hanfu and is the most basic and orthodox form of Hanfu; the deep garment system is the most representative form of Hanfu and has the longest heritage; the robe system has the richest styles and is the most widely used.