Exploring the evolution of Hanfu

Exploring the evolution of Hanfu

The revival of Hanfu in recent years has made more people understand the beauty of Hanfu. In the eyes of inheritors, Hanfu is not only a set of beautifully embroidered clothes, but also accumulates the dazzling charm and temperament of Chinese civilization. So, what exactly is Hanfu? Which dynasty did Hanfu originate from?

The origin of Hanfu

"In ancient times, when people lived in caves and lived in the wild, clothes and hair peeled off, and there was no system. Later generations of saints used silk and linen to change it. After observing Hui Zhai's writings and the glorious color, they dyed silk to achieve the effect. They began to make five colors and became clothes."

——Volume 120 of "Book of the Later Han Dynasty"·Zhi·Yu Suixia

Hanfu is not "the clothing of the Han Dynasty", but its full name is "the traditional clothing of the Han nation". Also known as Han clothes, Han costumes and Chinese clothes, they are clothes with unique Han national style and character formed through natural evolution centered on Chinese etiquette culture. They carry the Han nationality's outstanding craftsmanship and aesthetics such as dyeing, weaving and embroidery and inherit it. More than 30 pieces of Chinese intangible cultural heritage and Chinese arts and crafts artworks have been collected.

Hanfu "began from the Yellow Emperor and was prepared by Yao and Shun" and originated from the coronal uniform worn by the Yellow Emperor. After the Yin and Shang Dynasties, the crown clothing system was initially established, and during the Western Zhou Dynasty, the clothing system gradually took shape. After Qin unified China, various systems were established, including the clothing system.

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Yellow Emperor

According to historical records, the term "Hanfu" was first recorded in the "Book of Han": "Later, several people came to pay homage and enjoyed the Han clothing system." The "Han" here mainly refers to the Han Dynasty and the clothing etiquette system of the Han Dynasty. China is called "Huaxia", and the origin of this name is also related to Hanfu. "Shang Shu Zhengyi" notes: "The crown of the Huazhang is called Hua, and the great country is called Xia." "Zuo Zhuan Zhengyi, Dinggong ten years" notes: "China has great etiquette, so it is called Xia; the beauty of Zhangfu is called Hua. ”

At the beginning of the Han Dynasty and the Qin Dynasty, the Qin system was generally followed. The second volume of Cai Yong's "Doctrine" of the Han Dynasty says: "The emperor always obeys, and the Han obeys the Qin." By the time Emperor Ming of the Eastern Han Dynasty, with reference to the clothing systems of the Three Dynasties and the Qin Dynasty, he established the Han Dynasty crown clothing system with crowns and hats as the main symbol for distinguishing grades. No matter which dynasty it was in, the development and changes of Hanfu have never stopped. It was not until the Qing Dynasty's "shaving hair and changing clothes" system that Hanfu gradually faded out of the historical stage of Chinese culture.

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Ming Dynasty Jiuqiaomian, 18 cm high, 49.4 cm long, 30 cm wide, collected by Shandong Provincial Museum

Changes in Hanfu styles in different dynasties

During the Shang and Zhou dynasties, Hanfu was dominated by upper and lower garments with length above the knee and small sleeves. The collar, sleeves, and edges of the garment had patterns of different shapes, and the waist was tied with a sash. The style of clothes remains the same, but gradually becomes wider, and the sleeves become larger and larger, forming a style with large sleeves and removed laces.

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Typical clothing of Shang and Zhou dynasties

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Noble costumes of Shang and Zhou dynasties

During the Qin and Han Dynasties, the common folk clothing system coexisted with the upper garment and lower garment system. The deep garment system gradually replaced the upper garment and lower garment and became the mainstream. At this time, the clothes were wider than before. According to records, deep garments have four different names: deep garments, long garments, linen garments, and middle garments. Basically, they all have a large lapel with a folded collar and a right lapel. The shape of deep clothing is different from that of previous ones.Instead of separate top and bottom pieces, the top and bottom pieces are connected, while maintaining the dividing line into two. Kong Yingda mentioned in "Five Classics of Justice": "This deep garment is connected with the clothes and the quilt is deep, so it is called deep garment. There are mainly two types: curved train and straight train.

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Deep clothes

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Murals in Eastern Han Tombs

During the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties, celebrities advocated nature, detached themselves from the outside world, were frank and unrestrained, and were romantic and self-admired. This elegant Wei and Jin style was also reflected in Hanfu. The biggest feature of Hanfu during this period is that it is integrated with each other and is mainly loose and comfortable. Men wrap their heads with scarves, and women wear false sideburns. Most of the styles are frugal at the top and full at the bottom. The body part is tight and fitted, with large cuffs. The skirt is multi-pleated, long and floor-length, with a loose hem. Coupled with rich jewelry, it reflects the luxurious and elegant style.

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Painted female figurines of the Northern Wei Dynasty

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A Northern Zhou Dynasty female donor wearing Han-style clothes in Cave 428 of Mogao Grottoes in Dunhuang

During the Sui and Tang Dynasties, most people wore white round-neck gowns, while the lower class wore coarse brown ones made of linen and wool. In the Sui Dynasty and the early Tang Dynasty, women wore short jackets with small sleeves and tight-fitting long skirts. The skirts were tied at a high waist, usually above the waist, and some were even tied under the armpits and tied with ribbons. The overall atmosphere was elegant and full of It reflects the prosperous, grand and grand cultural characteristics of the Tang Dynasty, and presents the gorgeous and open aesthetic style of the time.

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Painted female figurines from the Sui Dynasty, wearing narrow gowns and long scarves.

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"Pictures of Ladies with Hairpins" of the Tang DynastyLady

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Tang Tomb Mural: Nine Palace Maidens Holding Box

The colors and styles of clothing made in the Song Dynasty were mostly inherited from the Tang Dynasty, and it was also the dynasty closest to modern clothing in the history of Han clothing. Men's clothing in the Song Dynasty generally followed the style of the Tang Dynasty. Common people generally wore robes with cross-collar or round collars, mostly in black and white. Women's clothing in the Song Dynasty consisted of a narrow-sleeved short coat on the upper body and a long skirt on the lower body. A long-sleeved double-breasted jacket could be added to the top, and the lapel was decorated with lace, and the collar extended to the hem.

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Left: Song Dynasty Liu Zonggu's "Yao Tai Moon Walking Picture", right: "Yongzheng Concubine's Fun Picture" Cloak

Hanfu developed into the Ming Dynasty. According to the tradition of the Han nationality, Zhu Yuanzhang, the emperor of the Ming Dynasty, "inherited the Zhou and Han Dynasty, and adopted it from the Tang and Song Dynasties."", the clothing system was re-established. Buttons began to be used in large quantities, and the materials were metal, jade, etc. The regular clothes of women in the Ming Dynasty were buttoned double-breasted gowns. The most prominent feature was that the buttons on the front replaced the knots. However, buttons Mainly used in formal wear, rarely used in regular clothes.

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Women's uniforms in the Ming Dynasty

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Lady wearing gauze skirt

The inheritance of contemporary Hanfu culture

Looking back at history, Hanfu has been changing from the zigzag deep-skirted robes in the Qin and Han dynasties to the flat-collared skirts in the Tang Dynasty that were easy to walk in, and then to the skirts in the Ming Dynasty. By the Qing Dynasty, Hanfu was in decline and disappeared under the impact of the Qing Dynasty's policy of shaving hair and changing clothes. Nowadays, the revival of Hanfu culture is blowing slowly like the spring breeze after the rain. After more than three hundred years, Hanfu has once again been used by people and reappeared in the world.

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Hanfu show

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A large number of Hanfu cultural festivals are held

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Contemporary people wear Hanfu to travel

"The sleeves are graceful and windy, lingering in the heart of the mighty Han Dynasty." Hanfu is the crystallization of the wisdom of the Chinese people. It embodies the national culture for thousands of years. It represents not only the clothing culture, but also the shadow of the Chinese national culture. It also represents the great civilization of the Chinese people.

"Wear the clothes of our Han family and revitalize our country of Chinese etiquette." The revival of Hanfu should follow the rules of respecting the ancient but not only the ancient, inheriting but not conservative, integrating existing cultural relics and historical records, and viewing and carrying forward the tradition with a correct mentality Clothing, popularizing the knowledge and culture of Hanfu.