Understanding Chinese Hanfu in Five Minutes

Understanding Chinese Hanfu in Five Minutes

Hanfu, the full name is "Traditional Costumes of the Han Nationality", also known as Han Clothes, Han Clothing, and Chinese Clothing. It was a style of "Chinese-Han costume" in the main residential areas of the Han people from the accession of the Yellow Emperor to the middle of the 17th century AD (late Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty). "Culture as the background and dominant idea, with Chinese etiquette culture as the center, formed through natural evolution, has a unique style and character of the Han nation, which is obviously different from the traditional clothing and accessories system of other ethnic groups. It is China's "clothes that govern the country" and "etiquette It embodies the "State of China", "Splendid China" and the State of Seris, which carries the Han people's outstanding craftsmanship and aesthetics such as dyeing, weaving and embroidery, and inherits more than 30 Chinese intangible cultural heritages and protected Chinese arts and crafts.

Origin Formation

Some ancient books believe that the Han people (and their ancestors) already have a unique clothing system. For example, "Historical Records" believes that "Chinese clothes were made by the Yellow Emperor" and "Before the Yellow Emperor, there were no clothes or houses. The Yellow Emperor built houses, made clothes, and conducted funerals, so that all people could avoid the difficulty of survival." In an era without archaeological evidence, Previously, the earliest appearance of Hanfu should be during the Yin and Shang Dynasties. About five thousand years ago, during the Yangshao Culture Period of the Neolithic Age, China had primitive agriculture and textile industries, and began to use woven linen to make clothes. Leizu, the wife of the Yellow Emperor, invented silkworm feeding and silk spinning. People The clothes and clothes are becoming more and more perfect day by day.

After the Yin and Shang Dynasties, the crown clothing system was initially established. During the Western Zhou Dynasty, the clothing system was gradually improved, and a Zhangfu system centered on the "emperor's crown clothing" was formed. "Riding the chariot of Yin and serving the crown of Zhou" is the essence of Confucian governance. Zhou Rites drew reference from the ritual and music systems of the Xia and Shang dynasties.

During the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, the styles of clothing were unprecedentedly rich, mainly reflected in deep clothing and Hu clothing. In the late Zhou Dynasty, due to the rapid changes in politics, economy, ideology and culture, especially the Hundred Schools of Thought which had a certain influence on the improvement of clothing, King Wuling of Zhao first adopted Hu clothing as military uniform in the Central Plains in order to strengthen his army. As a result, wearing Hufu became a fashion for a while. In addition, some musicians wear wind hoods, dancers have sleeves that are several feet long, and hunters' clothes and trousers are mostly tied up. Some people often wear owl hats or magpie tail crowns, long skirts with small sleeves, etc. skirts.

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Later development

After Qin unified China, various systems were established, including the clothing system. The etiquette system of the Han Dynasty was formulated by Sun Tong, Taichang Shusuntong, the emperor of the Han Dynasty, based on the etiquette system of the Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties. Men's and women's clothing in the Western Han Dynasty still followed the form of deep clothing. There are middle clothes and deep clothes inside the cicada clothes.

Emperor Ming of the Eastern Han Dynasty, with reference to the clothing systems of the Three Dynasties and Qin Dynasty, established the Han Dynasty crown clothing system with crowns and hats as the main mark of distinction. The clothing as a whole presents a dignified and elegant style.

The costumes of the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties were influenced by social politics, economy, ideology and other aspects. From the Wei and Jin Dynasties, which still followed the old system of Qin and Han Dynasties, to the mutual influence, mutual absorption and gradual integration of various ethnic groups during the Southern and Northern Dynasties. The costumes of this period were mainly characterized by naturalness, elegance and sparseness.

The costumes of the Tang Dynasty were a link between the previous and the following, with legal uniforms and regular uniforms coexisting at the same time. Legal uniforms are traditional formal attires, including crowns, crowns, clothes, skirts, etc. Regular uniforms, also known as public uniforms, are the clothing worn on general formal occasions, including round-neck robes, futou, leather belts, boots, etc. By the Tang Dynasty, a system for choosing colored clothes had been formed.

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Tang (Hanfu)

The clothing of the Song Dynasty generally followed the old system of the Sui and Tang Dynasties. However, due to the long-term internal and external troubles in the Song Dynasty and the influence of Cheng-Zhu Neo-Confucianism and other factors, the costumes of this period advocated simplicity, rigor and subtlety. The soft-footed futou of the Tang Dynasty had evolved into a futou hat lined with wooden bones and covered with lacquer gauze.

During the Yuan Dynasty, long clothes were collectively called robes. Their styles were not much different between the north and the south, but the materials were expensive.The lowly, the fine, the rough, but the difference is huge. There are not many changes in the hairstyles of Han men, but the hairstyles of Han women in the north are simpler than before.

At the beginning of the founding of the Ming Dynasty, they tried to eliminate the influence of the Mongolian clothing system of the Yuan Dynasty on Hanfu, and "restored the clothing and hats to the Tang system", but failed to fully implement it. It was not until the 26th year of Hongwu that many uniforms were established. During the Ming Dynasty, cotton became popular and the clothing materials for ordinary people improved. The main headdress of officials in the Ming Dynasty followed the Song and Yuan Futou with slight differences. Ordinary people's clothing may be long, short, shirt, or skirt. They basically inherit the traditional clothing styles, and the varieties are very rich. During the Ming Dynasty, in addition to the hats worn by ordinary people in the past, Zhu Yuanzhang personally formulated two types, which were issued nationwide and common to both scholars and common people, namely the Liuheyi unified hat and the Sifangpingding scarf.

Shave your hair and wear it easily

In order to weaken the national identity of the Han people and maintain the rule of Manchuria, the rulers of the Qing Dynasty implemented "shaving their hair and changing their clothes". Those who wore Han clothes and tied their hair were punished with serious crimes. In the second year of Shunzhi, the Qing army captured the provinces south of the Yangtze River. From then on, the Qing government ordered the implementation of the system of shaving heads and changing uniforms throughout the country.

The long-term resistance struggle of the Han people made the Qing government consider making some concessions to stabilize the situation. So the so-called "ten obediences and ten disobediences" were put forward, that is, men should not obey women in clothing, life should not obey death, yang should not obey yin, officials should not obey subordinates, old people should not obey young, Confucianism should not obey monks and Taoism , Disobeying the promotion of fine actors and actresses; disobeying officials in marriage, disobeying the country title, and disobeying the language and characters in service and taxation. This limited concession finally retained some characteristics of Hanfu.

As a result, during the more than two hundred years of the Qing Dynasty, Han men's clothing was basically based on Manchu clothing. Cheongsams, gowns, and mandarins were all improvements and developments of ethnic clothing based on the Manchu people, rather than traditional ethnic clothing of the Han people.

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Ming (Hanfu)

Retention and Revival

Although Hanfu itself disappeared under the Qing Dynasty's ruling policies such as shaving hair and changing clothes, some of its elements have not been extinct because of its strong vitality. Until the modern Han people believe in Taoism, Buddhism, some remote mountain people, and many ethnic minorities in the country They all still maintain the characteristics of Hanfu, and some elements of Hanfu can still be seen in some important sacrifices, commemorative activities, folk festivals, etc. in modern society. At the beginning of the 21st century, with theWith the development of a country's national strength, people began to examine the outstanding parts of their traditional culture. Some people have restored traditional Han clothing by studying Han clothing and removing the dross. At the same time, they have restored traditional festivals, restored traditional etiquette, worshiped sages, promoted traditional doctrines, promoted traditional musical instruments, etc. to re-propagandize the restoration of traditional Han clothing and wear Han clothing. Promote it and call it the Hanfu movement.