What is the system of clothing for Chinese Hanfu like?

What is the system of clothing for Chinese Hanfu like?

Hanfu has been a symbol of the national spirit for thousands of years of Chinese culture. Whether it is the elaborate costumes of actors in popular costume dramas such as "The Wind Rises in Longxi", "Nirvana in Fire", "The Twelve Hours of Chang'an", "Menghualu", "Mountains and Rivers", "Ming Dynasty under the Microscope", or in daily life in the streets and alleys In recent years, in China, which enjoys the reputation of the "Kingdom of Clothes", Hanfu fans in small and large groups are attracted by the charming tops. The emergence of Hanfu in the national trend has particularly demonstrated the cultural confidence and enthusiasm of the Chinese people.

However, people may not necessarily know what kind of clothing Hanfu is, what kind of style and connotation it has; what should be the reason for the revival of Hanfu.

In the Han Dynasty and before, there was no such thing as "Hanfu". The closer official name was Huafu, which as the name suggests is the clothing of the Chinese people. What we call "Hanfu" today refers more to the master of Chinese national costumes in the eyes of academic circles. The essence of reviving Hanfu should involve the following two aspects: first, the Chinese classic clothing system, including the matching rules, wearing rituals and wearing scenes of Hanfu; second, the clothing styles of the Chinese (Han) nation that developed in the integration, including There are two major form genealogies: upper garments and lower skirts (upper jacket and lower skirt) and "deep clothing" robes, as well as physical and chemical representations such as headwear, shoes, hair accessories, facial makeup and accessories. In comparison, only if you are familiar with the latter to a certain extent can you form an objective understanding of the former.

At present, the Hanfu that is relatively popular among the people is mainly divided into four systems: Han, Tang, Song and Ming. Looking back at the exquisite costumes in the past, taking women's clothing as an example, there are the deep and implicit in the Han Dynasty, the gorgeous and novelty in the Tang Dynasty, the simplicity and freshness of the Song Dynasty, and the soft and natural style of the Ming Dynasty. All kinds of styles are traditions accumulated in cultural exchanges from multiple sources. A treasure of clothing culture with elegant style and rich connotation.

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The clothing of the Han Dynasty has formed basic structural features such as cross collars, right lapels, and lapels

The most influential items in the clothing of the Han Dynasty were the deep garments and tops and lower garments. These two types of clothing have matured during the Warring States Period, and both follow the basic structural features of cross collars, right lapels, and lapel belts that have been formed since the Shang and Zhou dynasties. During the Western Han Dynasty, dark clothes worn by both men and women were mostly used as formal wear. Since the form of trousers at that time was still immature, there were only shin coats similar to the trouser legs in modern trousers. In order to cover the body, there were laces at the corners of the deep garments that could be tied around the waist. When wearing, the waist and hips could be tightly wrapped. . In order to facilitate the wearer to walk freely in dark clothes, the Han people designed the skirt of the clothes into a curved train, which is layered and wrapped from front to back. Judging from the painted wooden figurines of the Han Dynasty unearthed from the Mawangdui Han Tomb in Changsha, Hunan, they mostly wore upper and lower garments of daily clothing. The front and back pieces were joined together to form a skirt, which was also used as male underwear. By the Eastern Han Dynasty, a kind of long clothes with straight trains called "蜜褕" became more common. The deep robes and robes were eventually replaced by long robes with straight trains that were moderately relaxed, that is, robes. In the Han Dynasty, it was popular to wear three-layer robes with outer, middle and inner layers. The fringes on the collars, sleeves and other parts of each layer of clothing were exposed layer by layer. In particular, the outer garments also had heavy colored fringes on the lapels and trains. "Clothes are embroidered and brocades are used" has also become a fixed standard for traditional Chinese clothing and has been continued. It has also established the tone that Chinese clothing pays more attention to two-dimensional decoration than Western clothing. The Xinqi embroidered Qujing deep garment unearthed from the Mawangdui Han tomb in Changsha, Hunan is a representative example.

The hairstyles, headwear, facial makeup, etc. of the Han Dynasty were also very gorgeous and laid a solid foundation for later generations, but they are only described and recorded in existing literary works. There were three main hairstyles for women in the Han Dynasty: pushed to the top of the head, parted to the sides, and hanging to the back of the head, including horse buns, three-ring buns, snake buns, one-word buns, and hanging buns. The slender eyebrow shape that was common during this period was popular until the appearance of broad eyebrows with osmanthus leaves in the Tang Dynasty. After Zhang Qian traveled to the Western Regions, he brought back Yanzhi (red and blue flowers) from the Yanzhi Mountain of the Xiongnu. Han women also learned to apply rosy and delicious cheeks to their cheeks. In the Han Dynasty, facial dimples, originally called "旳", were two small dots of red (vermilion) placed symmetrically on both sides of the face as a sign that menstruation was coming and that the emperor and princes could not accept the "lucky". Later, It also became the mainstream makeup style in the Tang and Song Dynasties.

What is the system of clothing for Chinese Hanfu like? - Image 2

Tang Dynasty costumes highlighted the chest and lengthened the legs, creating opportunities for skirt design

By the Tang Dynasty, the most common female clothing was a short jacket or a long-sleeved shirt paired with a long skirt, with a half-armor and a silk scarf. The short jackets in the Tang Dynasty were mainly double-breasted and narrow-sleeved, with a variety of collar shapes. The lapels were open to avoid being buttoned, and the sleeves were as long as the wrists to cover the hands. The long-sleeved shirts were long below the crotch, and the hem often hung outside the skirt. The waistline of this kind of dress is significantly higher than the natural waistline of the human body, highlighting the chest and elongating the legs, creating good opportunities for skirt design. The skirts of the Tang Dynasty were colorful. Not only the red "pomegranate skirt" and "qian skirt", the green "emerald skirt" and "emerald skirt" were popular, but also the "Jiandao skirt" which was spliced ​​with two or more colors at intervals. The female wooden figurines unearthed from the Astana Ancient Tombs in Turpan, Xinjiang were wearing skirts. The half-arm is similar to the short-sleeved shirt in modern clothing, with the sleeves longer than the half-arm. Silks are mostly made of light fabrics such as gauze and Luo as raw materials. They have been around since the Qin Dynasty. They were popular in the Wei and Jin Dynasties and became popular in the harem in the Tang Dynasty. One type has a wider banner and shorter length. When worn, the middle part is draped over the shoulders, and the two ends hang down on the chest to form various shapes. The other type of silk has a narrower banner and longer length. It can be wrapped around the arms and floated in the wind with movements of hands and feet, making it suitable for movement and stillness. Women in the Tang Dynasty were born with natural feet. Commonly seen in women's shoes are high-wall shoes with a towering toe, heavy platform shoes with overlapping mountain-like decorations on the upper part of the toe, and cloud-head shoes with relatively flat toes.

Due to the openness of society in the Tang Dynasty and the high status of women, women were dressed exquisitely, with an unprecedented variety of hairstyles and novel facial makeup. Women's hairstyles in the Tang Dynasty were mainly divided into three categories: bun, bun, and sideburns. Take the bun as an example. At that time, there were nearly 30 popular buns including Leyou bun, Guishun bun, Lily bun, Choulai bun, Coiled bun, Jinghu bun, Changle bun, high bun, Yi bun, Zhiju bun, Prison bun, etc. In addition to the falling horse bun that existed in the Han Dynasty, there is also the Uighur bun that evolved from the way Uighur women often combed their hair; the hair around the ears is associated with different buns to produce various kinds of hair, such as cicada hair, cloud hair, and snow hair. , light temples, round temples, etc. There is also the custom of inserting a small comb on the high bun. Mother-of-pearl with various patterns pasted or painted on the eyebrows is the most distinctive facial makeup of women in the Tang Dynasty. Gold foil, pearls, fish cheek bones, fish scales, camellia flower cakes, black gloss paper, mother-of-pearl shells and mica are often used. Made of other materials. These can be seen to some extent in the famous "Tian Lian Tu". Other facial makeups also have their own merits. There is the peach blossom makeup, which looks like a peach blossom and is slightly lighter in color than the wine blush makeup, the Feixia makeup, which uses a light blush and is covered with powder, and the wine blush, which uses heavy rouge on the cheeks to give the appearance of a wine blush. makeup, light and elegant sandalwood makeup, etc. The makeup performed by Yang Guifei was originally created by the wife of Liang Ji, the general of the Han Dynasty. In the Tang Dynasty, the makeup was first applied with white powder on the face, and then the ointment was applied under the eyes. The shiny ointment looked like tear stains. , showing a crying appearance, which makes people feel pity. It can be seen that under the open and inclusive world style of the Tang Dynasty, the clothing system was also unconventional.

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Empress Xiaojing's blouse embroidered with a picture of a hundred children unearthed from the Dingling Tomb of the Ming Dynasty in Beijing carries the beautiful yearning for many children and good fortune

Clothing in the Song Dynasty emphasized slimness and fit, adding color to the image of a light woman respected by people at that time

The tendency of Tang suit to be cited from other sources showed a clear turning point in the Song Dynasty. "Narrow shirts and thin skirts, small waists, and new evening makeup" should be a new aesthetic chapter that started in the late Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties. The clothing of the Song Dynasty emphasized slenderness and fitness. Women's daily clothing included large-sleeved shirts, jackets, half sleeves, jackets, jackets, skirts, trousers, etc. Underwear mainly included tube tops and belly wraps. Chuzi, also written as "backzi", was the basic and common style of women's clothing in the Song Dynasty. The jackets mainly have straight collars and double breasted collars, and often have seamed collars. They have a slim body with different lengths, slits under the arms, and wide and narrow sleeves. From queens, concubines and concubines to commoners, attendants and servants, all wear trousers regardless of their status. The fringes on the neckline, cuffs, large and small hems of the jacket and the hem outline its straight silhouette, which is a visual expression with the characteristics of the times. Different from the solemnity represented by the straight-line silhouette of the Han Dynasty, in the Song Dynasty, both the large embroidered clothes used by married women as dresses and the most popular narrow-sleeved jackets showed delicacy and elegance. The slim, slim and elegant styles admired by the Song people The image of a light woman adds color. This can be seen from the peony-patterned lace-trimmed narrow-sleeved jacket unearthed from the tomb of Huang Sheng in Fuzhou during the Southern Song Dynasty. Although relatively simple in style, both men's and women's clothing in the Song Dynasty were highly decorative, mainly reflected in the patterns chosen for the clothing fabrics. The edge decoration of women's clothing is more exquisite, and techniques such as gold printing, gold tracing, embroidery and painting are often used to express various flowers and their combinations. Peonies, camellias, plum blossoms, lotus, etc. are more common pattern themes. Skirts such as "thousand pleats" and "baidie" skirts were popular in the Song Dynasty. The general waist skirts were of normal waistline height and were tied with a belt and a ribbon ring. Its style can be seen in a waist skirt unearthed from Zhou's tomb in De'an, Jiangxi Province in the China National Silk Museum.

The makeup of women in the Song Dynasty was mainly natural and beautiful, unlike the exaggerated heavy makeup of the Tang Dynasty. During this period, it was popular to use jadeite, pearls, fish bones, and flower cakes to decorate women's faces, mostly between the eyebrows, temples, and dimples at the corners of the mouth. The makeup of the recoiled statue of Shenzong of the Northern Song Dynasty in the National Palace Museum in Taipei is very typical. Literati gained a high social status in the Song Dynasty, and headscarves were the most varied category in the male clothing system. Headbands made of various materials, with different styles and names, had an impact on the popularity of headscarves among scholars and scholars in the Ming Dynasty. Su Dongpo wearing a square tube-shaped scarf hat in Zhao Mengfu's painting,It has also become a deeply rooted classic literati image in Chinese history.

The basic styles of clothing in the Ming Dynasty were inherited from the Tang and Song Dynasties, and also borrowed from the Mongolian and Yuan Dynasties

At the beginning of the founding of the Ming Dynasty, Emperor Taizu of the Ming Dynasty issued an edict that "clothes and crowns should be in the same shape as those of the Tang Dynasty", restored the etiquette and customs of the Han nationality, and formulated a new system of crown clothing, including the crown uniforms of the married women, involving the formal attire, regular clothes and Xiapei of the married women of all grades. The government has clearly defined clothing colors, patterns and accessories, and people of different status levels have corresponding dress codes. The men's scarves and hats mentioned above have developed into a rich variety in the Ming Dynasty. There are square scarves called "Sifang Pingding scarf" and "Liuhe unified hat" made of six pieces of materials, which show special political connotations. The basic styles of clothing in the Ming Dynasty were inherited from the Tang and Song Dynasties, and also borrowed from the Mongolian and Yuan Dynasties. Women's daily clothing mainly includes shirts, coats, trousers, jackets, bijia, skirts, etc. The shape and structure of the Ming Dynasty custard are roughly the same as those of the custard. Bijia is a Mongolian costume absorbed by the Ming Dynasty. It is similar in shape to a kuzi, with a double breast and sleeveless appearance, and is about the same length as a skirt. The Confucius Museum has a moon-white swastika with Ruyi cloud pattern on it. Among men's clothing, there is Yisa. It can be seen from a piece of yisha unearthed from the Ming Tomb of Weizikeng in Nanyuan, Beijing. It is a robe with the characteristics of a skirt. There are concentrated fine pleats on both sides of the waist near the side seams. It has a certain inheritance relationship with the Zhisun Yi of the Yuan Dynasty.

Among the common outfits worn by women in the Ming Dynasty, the custom of upper jacket and lower skirt was retained, and there were also combinations of long clothes and short skirts. There are many styles of women's skirts, including pleated skirts with multiple pleats around the waist, phoenix tail skirts made of regular strips embroidered with patterns, and acacia skirts with the back turned to the front, etc. The colors of women's skirts are also very rich. Except for bright yellow, crow green and red red which are strictly prohibited by the imperial edict, any other colors can be chosen. The image of Princess Cao wearing Xia Pei in the "Qiyang Family Cultural Relics Image Album" allows people to see that the colorful embroidered Xia Pei from the Song Dynasty was still widely used as a dress in the Ming Dynasty. In the Ming Dynasty, distinctive cloud shoulders also appeared, becoming a functional and decorative design in traditional women's clothing. The cloud shoulder is originally a positioning pattern that decorates the shoulders of clothing. It is related to belts and shawls. It has gradually developed into an independent item and has also become an indispensable part of the wedding dress. Ming Dynasty folk women's paddy field clothing is a grassroots art work. It is made of various fragments of brocade materials and is sewn into clothing. It is named because the different fabrics are interlaced to resemble a paddy field. The artistic effect of paddy field clothing is similar to that of patchwork art, and it remained popular until the Qing Dynasty. After the Tang Dynasty, baby play patterns became popular. The "Red Shirt Hundred Sons Picture" in Song poetry found physical evidence in the Ming Dynasty. The Queen Xiaojing's thread-embroidered women's jacket with the Hundred Sons Picture unearthed from the Dingling Tomb of the Ming Dynasty in Beijing is an example. A large number of Baizi patterns also appeared in the arts and crafts works of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, which fully illustrates people's yearning for many children and good fortune.

Each style of Hanfu has its own unique charm. Because of this, the Chinese (Han) nation can accumulate its essence and inherit and develop through exchanges, integration, reference, and absorption. Hanfu has also had a huge radiating effect on Japanese and Korean costumes, which both belong to the Han cultural circle. Japanese costumes retain more of the legacy of Hanfu in the Tang Dynasty, and Korean costumes are influenced by the dual influences of Tang and Ming Hanfu.ring. Today, China's younger generation is no longer obsessed with the pursuit and imitation of Japanese and Korean styles, but is rationally devoted to the creative transformation and innovative development of China's excellent traditional culture. With the national trend breaking through and Hanfu out of the circle, the historical mission entrusted to us by the times is not only to restore the original Hanfu and appreciate the creation journey of our predecessors, but also to be based on Eastern aesthetic ideas, focus on contemporary lifestyles, and empower Hanfu is reborn.

Fashion trends are changing rapidly, and cultural inheritance has a long way to go. Now and in the future, Hanfu is an eternal topic for us to tell the Chinese story, and it is also an indispensable chapter in spreading Chinese culture.