The development and evolution of Hanfu Ruqun

The development and evolution of Hanfu Ruqun

As a type of Hanfu, the Ruqun consists of a short coat for the upper body and a skirt for the lower body. This clothing system of upper body and lower skirt is very typical. The short jacket or shirt is worn on the upper body, and the length is usually no more than the knee. It is characterized by tight fitting and long skirts. If paired with a shawl and half arm, the outfit will be richer.

The history of the skirt can be traced back to the Warring States Period, and became popular during the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties. According to the height of the skirt waist, underskirts can be divided into waist-length underskirts, high underskirts and chest-length underskirts. At the same time, according to the style of the collar, underskirts can be divided into cross-collar underskirts and straight-collar underskirts. In addition, depending on whether it is tucked in or not, the skirt can be divided into single skirt and compound skirt. The difference between the two is the presence or absence of waist rails.

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In the early Tang Dynasty, Ru skirts were the daily wear of ordinary people, but were gradually replaced by shirts and jackets. In the pre-Qin period, Chinese clothing usually consisted of two parts: the upper garment and the lower garment. The undergarment refers to a short coat that is no longer than the knee, while the skirt refers to the lower garment made of cloth and connected to the waist.

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According to the unearthed cultural relics, we can understand that during the Western Zhou Dynasty, the nobles of Jin Dynasty had already appeared in the way of wearing short clothes with right skirt and skirt. During the Han Dynasty, due to the popularity of deep clothing, the number of women wearing Ruqun gradually decreased. Therefore, some people believe that the skirt did not exist in the Han Dynasty, and it only revived in the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties.

However, in fact, in the Han Dynasty, women did not give up the skirt., there are many related descriptions in Han Yuefu poems. The underskirt style of this period was usually very short, only reaching the waist, while the skirt was very long, hanging down to the ground. This kind of skirt is one of the main forms of Chinese women's clothing. From the Warring States Period to the Ming Dynasty, although the length and width have changed, the basic shape has always maintained the original style.

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During the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties, undershirts inherited the tradition of the Han Dynasty, and skirts above the undershirt were still the dominant style. The upper jacket is usually designed with a double placket, similar to a modern cardigan, and colorful embroidery is often added to the collar and sleeves as decoration. Cuffs can be of different widths, either narrow or wide. The waist is usually cinched with a girdle called a waistband and secured with a ribbon on the outside.

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The fabrics of the lower skirts are more colorful than those in the Han Dynasty, and various colors and patterns are possible. With the rise of Buddhism, lotus, honeysuckle and other patterns began to appear in large numbers on clothing. The production of women's skirts pays more attention to the bright and gorgeous materials, colors and patterns. During this period, the waistline of skirts gradually rises, the tops gradually become shorter, and the sleeves gradually become narrower. Later, the sleeves were even widened to two or three feet, becoming a very distinctive feature.

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During the Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties, the style of underskirts changed a lot. Most of the tops were short undershirts, and sometimes undershirts with small sleeves were also popular. In addition, half arms and shawls have also become an important part of the skirt. The shape of the half-arm is similar to a modern short-sleeved shirt, and the shawl is an accessory that can be draped on the arms and danced very elegantly.

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The skirts of this period were narrow at the top and wide at the bottom, hanging to the ground with no edges. The skirt waist is usually made of silk strips, with ties sewn at both ends. There are also many changes in the design of the neckline. Among them, the chest-flattering and large-sleeved shirts were once very popular, showing the spiritual outlook of ideological emancipation in the heyday of the Tang Dynasty.

The fabric of the lower skirt is mainly silk fabric, which is usually sewn into multiple pieces. The waist of the skirt gradually lifts up, and the skirt is in bright colors, including deep red, purple, moon green, grass green and other colors. Among them, pomegranate red skirt is the most popular color and lasts the longest. There are also many other color options to choose from.

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The underskirts of this period were matched with short undershirts and shawls, showing the graceful and plump charm of women in the prosperous Tang Dynasty. Whether it is Princess Anle's bird skirt or Wu Zetian's bell skirt, they all embody the poetic beauty and rhythm and have become masterpieces in the history of Chinese weaving and embroidery.